Children are a precious asset of society. The implementation of the child first principle in social governance is the embodiment of social progress, and the inclusive and high-quality child education system is the bottom line of a country.
The comprehensive development of children involves all aspects of health, education, protection, etc. If we want to achieve an ecosystem that allows each child to grow up healthy, we need to gather the comprehensive forces of government, business, public welfare, and academia to jointly promote and promote, and Communities play a vital role in this ecology.
A child from the fall to the age of 15 or even 18 years of age, the scope of activities is basically in the community, the child's home in the community, the vaccination health station, the hospital in the community, nursery and kindergarten in the community, primary and secondary schools are also in the community, There are also supermarkets, shopping malls, movie theaters, and parks in the community. Specifically: Children 0-3 years old are the key period for habit formation. Although the state has continuously issued policies to encourage the development of the infant and child care industry, it is well known that families are the first choice for infants and young children to receive care at this stage. Parents urgently need help and Guidance, the community-based family education support system allows parents (including parents and grandparents) to be supported at their doorstep; children 4-6 years old begin to enter kindergartens, and have their own classmates and teachers for the first time, social behavioral capabilities With sufficient exercise and reinforcement, the linkage between kindergarten and family, and the cooperation of the community, can allow children to enter the community from the "small home" to "everyone", and visit such places as food markets, hospitals, banks, schools, garbage stations, Fire stations, neighborhood committees and other communities have different public functions to establish the first awareness of society; at the age of 7, children begin to enter the nine-year compulsory education stage, and spend most of their time in schools and homes. With education reform, in order to cultivate More comprehensive talents, comprehensive quality has replaced simple exams, how to cultivate children's social responsibility, social practice The formation of very important qualities in these comprehensive qualities, such as practice, responsibility and participation in public affairs, has become a topic of concern to schools and parents, and the community just provides rich resources and unlimited possibilities for this. Of course, if there is a professional institution Support, the nourishment that children can get is not limited to this, but can also be extended to show more, such as scientific spirit, humanistic feelings and so on.
Since 2010, we have started social experiments based on the community-based child and family inclusive service system. From 0-3 community parent mutual help model exploration, to the establishment of a comprehensive service platform linking government and professional child services institutions, we Traveled to many provinces and cities, visited hundreds of communities, and united experts and organizations from various fields such as community building, children's rights, children's education, planning and design, policy research, etc., which lasted eight years, from scratch , Repeated trial and error, extensively absorbed relevant domestic and foreign experience, based on solid practice, promoted the introduction of the first version of the "child-friendly community construction norms" standards, from "policy-friendly, space-friendly, service-friendly, culturally friendly And practitioner-friendly ". The promulgation of standards is not the purpose, and how to make the standards truly beneficial to millions of households is based on this. According to this, the norms for the construction of child-friendly communities place great emphasis on the establishment of a service system, including the content of services, such as government support and protective services , Developmental services of professional institutions (including business and public welfare), including the access agreement of service personnel, such as volunteer, part-time or full-time community child service providers. Although the standards also have certain requirements for hardware and facility specifications, we also expect that industry associations in the planning community can take the lead in completing more detailed hardware and facility standards, which not only meet the characteristics and needs of the community, but also meet different ages Different needs of children.
The first edition of the "Child-Friendly Community Construction Code" has more than 5,000 words. It has refined four basic principles and five major normative sections. The four basic principles are "the principle of children's best interests, the principle of inclusive equity, and child participation "Principles, co-construction and sharing principles", it is not difficult to understand literally, the five major sections are "system construction, space construction, service provision, cultural construction, personnel requirements and management", a total of 19 specifications including 77 detailed rules, of which :
The focus of the system construction is that the streets and towns as the grass-roots governments should be the lead units to ensure that various tasks can be implemented in terms of system construction;
The focus of space creation is that indoor and outdoor public spaces should provide supporting hardware facilities for the needs of children of different ages, and at the same time encourage children's representatives in the community to express their needs and participate in community planning or renovation with planners and designers;
The focus of service provision is on minors and their families at different ages from 0-18 years old, and are organized by different fields and special social organizations-including but not limited to community service institutions, education institutions, etc. Services, inclusive or customized services;
The focus of cultural construction is to promote the concept of child-friendliness to all adults and children in the community, and to form a good community atmosphere for children on the basis of tapping the local cultural characteristics of the community;
The focus of personnel requirements and management is to divide personnel into three roles: volunteers, professional service providers, and researchers, and broadly unite all individuals committed to child-friendly construction, while establishing training and management systems to regulate, including but not limited to Social workers, educators, parents, and groups of college students with professional training.
Finally, share our understanding of the relationship between child-friendly cities and child-friendly communities. In 1996, UNICEF launched the "Child-Friendly Cities Initiative". As of 2019, hundreds of cities around the world have joined the ranks of child-friendly cities. In recent years, with the promotion of local governments and women's federations, some cities in China, such as Shenzhen, have also begun to apply to join international child-friendly cities, which is a reflection of China's social progress. However, China's national conditions are particularly unique. Ignoring the international model blindly may not be convinced, and it also wastes our own advantages. Specifically, the current Chinese society does not yet have the awareness of giving priority to children's rights. When the conditions are not mature, it will be quite difficult to start from the city and start from the community. Especially in the context of community governance innovation in recent years, the government has taken the lead and the forces of all sectors of society have jointly participated in the promotion, forming a very rare benign ecology, which has given birth to countless community-building professional institutions and community organizations. These institutions and organizations Coming from the private sector, they are very energetic and play an active role in building a harmonious society under the guidance of the government. This is a boost to the rapid development of child-friendly communities. The healthy ecology of community governance can ensure the continuous implementation and implementation of children's services in terms of systems and professional teams. At the same time, the children's sector is also the best place to promote community vitality. We sincerely hope that we can combine international experience and local practice, from "child-friendly communities" to "child-friendly cities", from small to large, easy to difficult, combined with advanced international experience, and steadily build a child-friendly city with Chinese characteristics. International child-friendly cities contribute Chinese wisdom.
China Child Friendly Community Promotion Program Office
June 2019. Beijing